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1429, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 2 Grupo Especial de Estudo e Proteção do Ambiente Aquático do Rio Grande do Sul GEEPAA-RS, Rua Tiradentes, 2247, CEP , Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The ombrophylous forests found farther north, with a large number of species, are under intensive pressure from logging companies and the activity is carried wherever there is a road a truck can pass. (2004) Species poor but distinct: bird assemblages in white sand vegetation in Jaú National Park, Brazilian Amazon. Pesquisas em campo e em museus revelaram que populações tradicionalmente identificadas como Scytalopus speluncae no sul do Brasil e na província de Misiones, Argentina, representam uma espécie não descrita, que é aqui nomeada e caracterizada. speluncae, quanto à plumagem do macho, pela presença constante em qualquer idade de ampla área acanelada nos flancos marcada por conspícuo barramento negro (vs. A nova espécie ocorre em três áreas distintas: Serra do Sudeste (sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Provícia argentina de Misiones e áreas adjacentes do Brasil e partes mais altas do Planalto do nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul e sudeste de Santa Catarina. Field and museum studies showed that male plumage differs from traditional S. speluncae by its slower paced song ( notes/ s vs notes/s), by having two types of calls that differ in general structure and note shape from the calls of S. novacapitalis and populations in Minas Gerais (also possibly new species), suggesting that these species are more closely related to each other than to any other species in the genus. At least 37 species are presently recognized, the great majority being confined to the Andes and related orographic systems while some others are endemic to southeastern Brazil and adjacent Argentina (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997, 2003, Sick 1997). Sclater 1890, Cory and Hellmayr 1924), the original description (Ménétriès 1835), and some recent field guides and manuals (e.g. Despite its importance, the region between the Tapajós and the ingu rivers has not a single strictly protected area. Recently, in the Serra do Sudeste region, southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the author and Rafael A. speluncae occurring elsewhere in the Atlantic forest region. speluncae are analyzed and, as a result, a new species is herein proposed. An ambitious plan to avoid that by creating protected areas, land zoning, solving land-tenure issues and other activities is being developed by the federal government to avoid the foreseen catastrophe. Dias found a population that matched the description of the Misiones birds and noticed that this population had a slower-paced song (i.e. Furthermore, remarks on the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of the entire S. METHODS Some plumage patterns within Scytalopus, such as the barring on the flanks, are present in younger birds (juveniles, immatures, and subadults) of virtually all members of the genus, disappearing in full adults of several species, but being present in all ages of others (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Whitney 1994, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997). Whether it will ever work (or even be implemented) remains to be seen but so far the results are not encouraging. (2001) list several candidate sites for protected areas in the Tapajós-ingu interfluvium, including the Serra do Cachimbo, where a military base is now the best guarantee of conservation. 4,56-5,86 notas/s), por emitir gritos distintos quanto a estrutura geral e forma das notas e por ter em seu repertório vocal um tipo de canto quase único, cuja parte final é notavelmente acelarada até tornarse semelhante a um trinado (vs. Entretanto, análises baseadas em séries pequenas e não vinculadas a um tipo vocal são desencorajadas. Additionally, alternative biogeographic hypotheses to explain the origins and the diversification of the S. Even after a meticulous revisional study, involving primarily Andean taxa, Zimmer (1939) was not satisfied with his own results: ( ) there are some confusing portions of the picture that more material will be needed to clarify and The group is an unusually difficult one and although there are a number of species that must be recognized, there is such similarity of pattern and color, all in browns and grays without striking differences, that exact definitions are not easy. This latter morphotype, which has been attributed to the superficially similar immature plumage of typical S. da Fonseca (unpublished report) found that birds in northernmost Rio Grande do Sul (contiguous with the Misiones forest) and in the highlands of southeastern Santa Catarina State (Planalto) have similar, slow-paced songs. Better than any fancy sustainable-use public policy, keeping areas very difficult to reach and living conditions extremely hard have been the most efficient factors in conserving tropical forests, and the BR 163 is an example. Adicionalmente, hipóteses biogeográficas alternativas para explicar a origem e a diversificação do grupo S. Such a confusing scenario, which has begun to improve only recently through the use of vocalizations to recognize species limits (Whitney 1994, Krabbe and Schulenberg 1997, Coopmans et al. In the Espinhaço Range, eastern Minas Gerais State, an apparently undescribed species, morphologically similar to S. speluncae (Naumburg 1937), is the only plumage pattern known for the birds occupying Misiones Province, Argentina (see descriptions in Naumburg , Giai  and Narosky and Yzurieta ). However, such differences in song pace have been attributed to individual variation within populations of S. The proposed paving of the road, mostly to allow the export of soybeans from Mato Grosso through the Santarém port (which could be achieved by building a more efficient and environmentally friendly railroad) is already resulting in yet another tale of environmental catastrophe as the announcement was made without effective conservation measures being implemented. Note length (or duration) was measured from the beginning to the end of the fundamental of individual notes.
The following vocal variables were analyzed from the tape-recordings: pace (from songs and alarm calls), total duration (from songs only), frequency (from song and alarm call notes), and length, shape and structure of notes (from songs and alarm and contact calls). speluncae group deposited at other Brazilian institutions were examined: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP), Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ), Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (DZUFRJ), Museu de História Natural de Taubaté, Taubaté (MHNT), Coleção Ornitológica Marcelo Bagno, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília (COMB), Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba (MHNCI) and Museu de Ciências Naturais of the Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCN). Furthermore, digital images of the typespecimen of S. Measures of unsexed specimens were excluded from the analysis. speluncae (housed at the Academy of Sciences of St-Petersburg, Russian Federation), provided by L. Silveira, and a color plate from the original description provided by M. Statistical testes (t-test of Student, 95% significance level) were conducted to evaluate the existence of significant differences in morphometrics between the taxa with better sample sizes (i.e. Tape-recordings were digitized at 44.1 khz, 16-bit and were analyzed using the programs Cool Edit 2000 and Cool Edit 96 (Syntrillium Software Corporation). As the number of alarm calls taperecorded per individual was highly variable, a mean for each individual was calculated first; then, the mean value obtained for each bird was the basis for the general mean and standart deviation calculations. As unsolicited songs are given at long and unpredictable intervals, most recordings were obtained after playback (see Vocalizations).
Elias Coelho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Specimens were measured with a caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm.